14:0334(59)CA - Justice, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Correctional Institution and AFGE Local 3696, Council of Prison Locals -- 1984 FLRAdec CA

[ v14 p334 ]
The decision of the Authority follows:

 14 FLRA No. 59
 Charging Party
                                            Case No. 4-CA-1227
                            DECISION AND ORDER
    The Administrative Law Judge issued the attached Decision in the
 above-entitled proceeding, finding that the Respondent had engaged in
 certain unfair labor practices alleged in the complaint and recommending
 that it be ordered to cease and desist therefrom and take certain
 affirmative action.  Thereafter, the Respondent filed exceptions to the
 Judge's Decision and a brief in support thereof.
    Pursuant to section 2423.29 of the Authority's Rules and Regulations
 and section 7118 of the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations
 Statute (the Statute), the Authority has reviewed the rulings of the
 Judge made at the hearing and finds that no prejudicial error was
 committed.  The rulings are hereby affirmed.  Upon consideration of the
 Judge's Decision and the entire record in this case, the Authority
 adopts the Judge's findings, conclusions and recommendations only to the
 extent consistent herewith.
    The Judge found that the Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons,
 Federal Correctional Institution (the Respondent) violated Section
 7116(a)(1) and (8) of the Statute /1/ when it conducted a strip search
 of C. R. Arnold, an employee in a bargaining unit exclusively
 represented by American Federation of Government Employees, Local 3696,
 Council of Prison Locals (the Charging Party or the Union), without
 permitting representation of Arnold by the Charging Party.  She
 determined that such a search, even absent oral interrogation, was an
 "examination" within the meaning of section 7114(a)(2)(B) of the
 Statute.  /2/ The Authority does not reach that issue because it is
 concluded in the circumstances presented that the employee withdrew his
 request for union representation, a prerequisite under Section
 7114(a)(2)(B)(ii) to such representation.
    Officials at the Respondent's Butner, N.C. Correctional Facility had
 been informed that Arnold, a guard at that facility, was trafficking
 with inmates.  An inmate passed a marked $20 bill to Arnold in
 accordance with a prearranged plan, and on the morning of August 10,
 1981, Arnold was called into the personnel office in connection with the
 investigation of that matter.  Arnold was advised of his right to remain
 silent and of his right to have a representative of his Union present.
 He was given a written statement of those rights and he signed that
 statement.  At that point in time, Arnold requested Union
 representation.  Management agents immediately attempted to contact the
 specific individuals Arnold requested as Union representatives, and
 called several before Union Second Vice President Presley was called at
 his house.  Presley's daughter answered and informed management's agent
 that Presley had gone to bed.  When so informed, Arnold stated that
 Presley should not be bothered.  Almost immediately, Presley called back
 to say that he was on his way back to the Activity, and, as found by the
 Judge, Arnold was aware of that fact.  At that point, Arnold stated to
 the management officials that they should go ahead with "it," which the
 Judge found referred to the expected oral interrogation, without waiting
 for Presley to arrive.  When Arnold made that statement, a management
 official told him to step behind a partition in order to be strip
 searched.  Arnold replied, "All right, I don't have anything to hide."
 The strip search was conducted, Arnold dressed and left the building,
 and met Presley in the parking lot.  Less than twenty minutes had
 elapsed since Presley was first called.  At no time was Arnold
 interrogated in connection with his strip search.
    It is clear that, while Arnold initially sought Union representation
 before an expected oral interrogation, he subsequently withdrew that
 request.  Thus, when informed that Presley, the last on his list of
 proposed representatives, had gone to bed, Arnold stated that Presley
 should not be bothered.  Even when told that Presley was on his way,
 Arnold told management to go ahead with "it," meaning the interrogation.
  Then, when informed that he was to be strip searched, Arnold willingly
 submitted to the search.  Arnold knew that Presley could be on the scene
 in ten minutes or less;  nevertheless, by his words and actions, he
 withdrew the request for representation by his exclusive representative.
  Accordingly, without passing upon whether Arnold otherwise would have
 been entitled to union representation, the Authority concludes that the
 Respondent did not fail to comply with section 7114(a)(2)(B) of the
 Statute since a request for representation is a prerequisite to any
 obligation under that section.  /3/ It follows that the Respondent did
 not violate section 7116(a)(1) and (8) of the Statute as alleged.
    IT IS ORDERED that the complaint in Case No. 4-CA-1227 be, and it
 hereby is, dismissed.  
 Issued, Washington, D.C., April 26, 1984
                                       Barbara J. Mahone, Chairman
                                       Ronald W. Haughton, Member
                                       Henry B. Frazier III, Member
                                       FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY
 -------------------- ALJ$ DECISION FOLLOWS --------------------
                                       Case No.: 4-CA-1227
    Robert M. Wilansky,
       Attorney for Respondent
    Regina N. Kane,
       Attorney for the General Counsel
       Federal Labor Relations Authority
      Administrative Law Judge
    This is a proceeding under Title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act
 of 1978, Pub. L. No. 95-454, 92 Stat. 1192, 5 U.S.C. 7101 et seq. (Supp.
 V, 1981), commonly known as the Federal Service Labor-Management
 Relations Statute, and hereinafter referred to as the "Statute," and the
 rules and regulations issued thereunder and published at 5 CFR 2411 et
    Pursuant to a charge filed by the Charging Party on September 14,
 1981 and amended on September 28, the Regional Director of Region IV of
 the Federal Labor Relations Authority (hereinafter, the "Authority")
 investigated and, on January 27, 1982, issued the complaint initiating
 this proceeding.  On February 2, 1982, the complaint was withdrawn "in
 view of policy considerations raised by its allegations." See GC 1(f).
 /4/ On July 26, 1982, it was reissued.
    The complaint alleges that on or about August 10, 1981, Respondent's
 agents, at its Butner, North Carolina, facility, conducted a strip
 search of bargaining unit employee C. R. Arnold, in connection with an
 investigation concerning alleged trafficking in contraband with inmates,
 that the employee reasonably believed that the strip search could lead
 to disciplinary action against him, that he requested a union
 representative be present at said strip search, and that,
 notwithstanding this request, Respondent's agents refused to permit a
 representative of the Union /5/ to be present during the conduct of the
 strip search.  The complaint alleges that, by these acts, Respondent has
 failed and refused, and is continuing to fail and refuse, to comply with
 Section 7114(a)(2)(B) of the Statute, and thereby violates Sections
 7116(a)(1) and (8) of the Statute.  /6/
    Respondent admits that its agents conducted a strip search of C. R.
 Arnold on or about August 10, 1981, in connection with an investigation
 concerning alleged trafficking in contraband with inmates.  However, it
 denies that any statutory violations occurred in connection with the
 search.  Specifically, Respondent denies that the search was an
 "examination," within the meaning of Section 7114(a)(2)(B), that the
 employee reasonably believed that the strip search could lead to
 disciplinary action against him, that the employee requested a
 representative of the Union be permitted to be present at the strip
 search, or that its agents refused such a request.
    The case was heard on February 15, 1983, in Durham, North Carolina.
 The Respondent and the General Counsel appeared, adduced evidence, and
 examined witnesses.  A brief dated April 15 was submitted by the General
 Counsel, and one dated April 18 by Respondent.  These submissions were
 in compliance with an order dated March 9, which extended the briefing
 time to April 18, pursuant to a request of the General Counsel,
 concurred in by the Respondent, and without objection from the Charging
    Based upon the record made in this proceeding, my observation of the
 demeanor of the witnesses, and the briefs, I make the following findings
 of fact, conclusions of law, and recommended order.
                             Findings of Fact
    1.  It is admitted that the Charging Party is a "labor organization,"
 within the meaning of the Statute and, during all times material herein,
 has been and is now the exclusive representative of a bargaining unit of
 employees employed at Respondent's prison facility at Butner, North
    2.  It is admitted that Respondent is an "agency," and that the
 following persons were "supervisors" and/or "management officials,"
 within the meaning of the Statute, during the period here relevant:
    Paul Hungerford . . . . Chief Correctional Supervisor
    Alexander Howard. . . . Personnel Officer
    George Snyder . . . . . Personnel Management Specialist
    Otis Ogden. . . . . . . Correctional Supervisor
    Wayne Pearson . . . . . Correctional Supervisor
    3.  It is admitted and established that on August 10, 1981,
 Respondent, at its Butner, North Carolina, facility, by its agents Otis
 Ogden and Wayne Pearson, in the presence of Paul Hungerford, Alexander
 Howard and George Snyder, conducted a strip search of bargaining unit
 employee C. R. Arnold in connection with an investigation concerning
 alleged trafficking in contraband with inmates.
    4.  C. R. Arnold had been an employee of Respondent for 13 years
 prior to his resignation in August 1981.  He worked first at the prison
 in Atlanta, Georgia, and then, from July 1978 to August 1981, at the one
 in Butner, North Carolina.  In December 1980, he received a Sustained
 Superior Performance Award.  In August 1981 he was a Senior Correctional
 Officer working with inmates.  His first-line supervisor was Lt. Ogden.
 His second-line supervisor was Capt. Hungerford.  His third-line
 supervisor was Associate Wardens Hayes and Tolfrey.  His fourth-line
 supervisor was Warden Emery.
    5.  Right before the 5:00 a.m. count procedure on August 10, 1981,
 /7/ Officer Arnold discovered a $20 bill in his lunch bucket, hidden
 under some pay slips.  He suspected that someone had "planted" it on him
 (TR 19).  He did not know who.  He cut it up and disposed of it in the
    6.  At 6:00 a.m., Capt. Hungerford was informed, before he came to
 work, that an inmate had passed a marked $20 bill to Officer Arnold, in
 accordance with a prearranged plan.
    7.  The prearranged plan had been put into effect after Capt.
 Hungerford had been informed, by a "reliable informant," (TR 223) who
 was an inmate, that Officer Arnold had brought certain items, such as
 inhalers, whiskey, and skin creams, into the institution for him in
 exchange for money.  The inmate told Capt. Hungerford that he was now
 angry at Officer Arnold and wanted to "inform" (TR 223) on him.
    8.  Between 7:45 a.m. and 8:00 a.m., Capt. Hungerford and Lts. Ogden
 and Pearson assembled in the Personnel Office in order to confront
 Officer Arnold as he left the institution at the conclusion of his
 shift.  Present also in the Personnel Office were Cathy Parrott, a
 Personnel Assistant, the Personnel Officer, Mr. Howard, and Personnel
 Specialist, Mr. Snyder.  The Personnel Office is next to the front door
 of the institution and is divided by partitions formed by two sets of
 15-foot high file cabinets with an opening in between.  Ms. Parrott sits
 in front of the partitions, near the door.  Mr. Howard and Mr. Snyder
 sit behind the partitions with Mr. Snyder to the left and Mr. Howard to
 the right, as one enters the Personnel Office.
    9.  At 8:05 a.m., Officer Arnold approached the front door of the
 institution and was asked by Capt. Hungerford, accompanied by Lt.
 Pearson, to step into the Personnel Office.  Officer Arnold raised no
 objection and did as he was asked to do.
    10.  Officer Arnold was told by Capt. Hungerford that "information"
 had been received that Officer Arnold "was traffic(k)ing with inmates"
 (TR 23).
    11.  In the presence of all those mentioned in finding 8, supra,
 Capt. Hungerford read to Officer Arnold from a form and then asked
 Officer Arnold to sign it, which he did.  The form is called a
 "Non-Compelled Testimony Rights Form" (RI) and reads as follows:
                                YOUR RIGHTS
          You are about to be questioned as part of an investigation
       being conducted into allegations that you have been involved in
       misconduct.  Because the allegations might cover criminal
       misconduct on your part as well as violations of FPS regulations,
       you are being advised of your rights in this matter.
          -- You have a right to remain silent if your answers tend to
       incriminate you in a criminal matter.
          -- Anything you say may be used as evidence both in an
       administrative proceeding or any future criminal proceeding
       involving you.
          -- If you refuse to answer the questions posed to you on the
       ground that the answers may tend to incriminate you, you cannot be
       discharged solely for remaining silent.  However, your silence can
       be considered in an administrative proceeding for the evidentiary
       value that may be warranted by the facts surrounding your case.
          -- You must answer truthfully and fully all questions which the
       answers to would not tend to incriminate you in a criminal matter.
          -- If you are a member of the bargaining unit and you believe
       your rights are being threatened, you may request the presence of
       a representative.  If you desire a representative no further
       questioning will take place until your representative is present.
       However, if your representative is not available within a
       reasonable period of time, questioning may proceed without a
       representative being present.
    Do you understand each of your rights and responsibilities listed
 above?  . . . .
    12.  Mr. Howard then asked Officer Arnold if he wanted a union
 representative.  Officer Arnold replied that he did.  This occurred at
 about 8:10 a.m.  Officer Arnold first requested the union president, Mr.
 Clem, and then Mr. Goggin.  Neither was available.  Mr. Snyder and Ms.
 Parrott called several other active union members, but could not locate
 them.  Finally, Officer Arnold requested Robert Presley, the Union's
 second vice-president and a Senior Officer Specialist at the Butner
 facility.  Officer Presley had also been a union steward for some five
    13.  Officer Presley was located at home, about 8:15 a.m., by Mr.
 Snyder.  He had just come off the midnight-to-8:00 a.m. shift and had
 gone to bed, but not to sleep.  Mr. Snyder so informed Mr. Howard.  All
 present in the Personnel Office could have overheard him, although
 Officer Arnold could not recall overhearing that Officer Presley had
 been called and had gone to bed.
    Officer Presley's 12-year-old daughter had received the call and went
 to tell her father that he had been called by the Personnel Office.
 Officer Presley put on his pants and immediately called the institution.
  Mr. Snyder answered the phone when Officer Presley called back, and
 told him that Mr. Howard wanted him to represent Officer Arnold.
 Officer Presley responded that he would be there in five to ten minutes.
  Mr. Snyder so informed Mr. Howard.  All present in the Personnel Office
 could have overheard him.  Officer Arnold was told that Officer Presley
 was "coming in" (TR 53);  and Officer Arnold knew how close he lived to
 the institution.
    Officer Presley left his home at about 8:20 a.m.  At normal speeds,
 it takes him about 10 minutes to drive to the institution.  As he
 arrived at the institution, he saw Officer Arnold coming down the
 sidewalk.  He was "surprised" that Officer Arnold would be out of the
 institution "that quick" and checked his watch.  It showed 8:28 a.m.
    The 8:15 a.m. call to Officer Presley, and the 8:28 a.m. exit time of
 Officer Arnold from the institution were firmly established through the
 testimony of Officer Presley.  His testimony was given in a positive
 manner and was based on long experience, as a law enforcement officer,
 in estimating time, the checking of his watch, and the routine he
 follows each day.
    14.  Between the 8:15 a.m. call to Officer Presley and the 8:28 a.m.
 exit of Officer Arnold from the institution, the strip search of Officer
 Arnold was conducted.  Including checking all his clothing, coat, lunch
 box, shoes, wallet and the actual body search, the whole process took
 about 10 minutes.  (Compare the estimate of Lt. Pearson, who conducted
 the strip search, along with Lt. Ogden, (TR 159) with the time frame
 established by the testimony of Officer Presley, as set forth in finding
 13, supra.  At the time of the search, Officer Arnold could not be sure
 that something else had not been planted on him that he had not found.
    15.  A strip search is ordinarily a "stressful ordeal" (TR 220).
 Officer Arnold's mood throughout the time spent in the Personnel Office,
 and immediately after was described as follows:
          a.  Officer Presley, who saw him as he exited the institution,
       described him as "upset," "tired," "want(ing) to go home" and
       "sleep on it," "distraught, red faced, nervous, talking fast" (TR
       83, 84).
          b.  Lt. Pearson described him as "very jovial at the time (when
       the names of union representatives were being mentioned, before
       the strip search) very cooperative" (TR 132-133) and "laughing and
       joking" and "a very light atmosphere on his part" (TR 142-143).
       During the strip search, Officer Arnold exhibited "slight
       nervousness" (TR 147), but was "not distraught," and was no more
       "red in the face" than usual (TR 148).  He observed a "(s)light
       trembling of the hands, during the strip search (TR 148).  Officer
       Arnold was observed "talking the whole time" he was in the
       Personnel Office (TR 155).
          c.  Mr. Howard testified that Officer Arnold was not "jovial,"
       was "anxious" but not "very nervous," not "jittery," and not "all
       red in the face" (TR 191).  Mr. Howard assumed that Officer Arnold
       was "somewhat frightened" (TR 191).  Mr. Howard opined that
       Officer Arnold did not seem "too concerned" about getting a union
       representative for himself (TR 166).
          D.  Capt. Hungerford heard "(j)ust lighthearted conversation"
       between Officer Arnold and the two lieutenants conducting the
       strip search (TR 220).  Capt. Hungerford opined that the strip
       search was not stressful for Officer Arnold "(b)ecause he is
       lighthearted and he jokes and he doesn't take anything very
       seriously" (TR 220).  Capt. Hungerford was told by Officer Arnold,
       after the strip search, that it "wasn't a big deal" and that
       "(h)e'd been through it before" (TR 220).
    16.  Based upon the above accounts of Officer Arnold's mood
 throughout his stay in the Personnel Office, his circumstances at the
 time, the ordinary stressfulness of a strip search, and his prior long
 and recently-honored career as an employee of Respondent.  I find that
 Officer Arnold had reason to fear that something besides the $20 bill
 had been planted on him, that he was upset, distraught, tired, nervous,
 humiliated, and unable to think straight.  His appearance, to some, of
 joviality, lightheartedness, and unconcern about receiving union
 representation, was a bluff, made so that he might appear innocent of
 the charge against him.  Any lightheartedness he may have felt certainly
 would have vanished when he realized a strip search was to occur.  See
 the details of the strip search, set forth at TR 28.
    17.  There is dispute as to whether Officer Arnold told his assembled
 supervisors not to bother Officer Presley and, after learning that he
 was on his way to the prison, to go ahead with "it," without waiting for
 Officer Presley to arrive.  Officer Arnold testified that he "kept
 looking for Mr. Presley to come" and made no mention of the union
 representative, after requesting one and up until the time of the search
 (TR 29).  He denied telling anyone present at the strip search to tell
 Officer Presley "not to bother coming in," or that he did not need a
 union representative or the aid of Officer Presley (TR 30).  Mr. Howard,
 Lt. Pearson, and Capt. Hungerford all testified to the effect that
 Officer Arnold, before the strip search, stated, first, not to bother
 Officer Presley, upon learning that he had already gone to bed, and
 then, not to wait for Officer Presley and to go ahead with "it," after
 learning that Officer Presley was on his way.  See TR 135, 150-151,
 171-173, 191, 192, 216-217, 219, 237, 238-239, 240 and 247-248.  All
 three sounded positive of their recollection, as to this point;  and
 they corroborate each other.  I find that Officer Arnold, being
 talkative, too tired and distraught to think straight, and trying to
 appear unconcerned about the whole matter, did make these statements
 (not to bother Officer Presley and to go ahead with "it"), but simply
 could not recall them.  /8/
    18.  After Officer Arnold told his assembled supervisors to go ahead
 with "it," without waiting for Officer Presley, the strip search began,
 with Capt. Hungerford telling him "step over here," for a strip search
 (TR 235, 27).  Officer Arnold replied:  All right, i don't have anything
 to hide" (TR 32).
    19.  There is a dispute as to whether Officer Arnold realized that a
 strip search was to be made before he made the statement about not
 waiting for Officer Presley, and to go ahead with "it." Officer Arnold
 claims that he did not realize the intent to strip search him until told
 to "step over here." see TR 27.  The Non-Compelled Testimony Rights
 Form, which he had just signed, states "You are about to be questioned."
 See finding 11, supra.  It says nothing about a strip search.  Capt.
 Hungerford at first testified that he had did not believe that he had
 mentioned a strip search to Officer Arnold before telling him "step over
 here." See TR 234 and 235.  Then he changed his testimony and stated:
 "I believe that when we completed the Compelled Testimony Rights that we
 did state . . . you know, it is my intention to search you" (TR 236).
    Mr. Howard testified that even he did realize a strip search was
 going to occur until he actually observed it himself, and that Officer
 Arnold could have been in the same position.  See TR 181-182.
    Lt. Pearson testified that Officer Arnold was not told that a strip
 search would occur until just before it happened, and that this was
 after Officer Arnold said there was no reason to get Officer Presley out
 of bed.  See TR 145-146.
    Carl Swick, a Labor Relations Specialist for Respondent testified
 that, at an arbitration hearing, in August 1981, he cross-examined
 Officer Arnold on the issue of the strip search.  The arbitration
 concerned a claim that Officer Arnold had been involuntarily terminated
 as a result of the strip search here at issue, and a five-day suspension
 he would have served, had he not resigned.  Mr. Swick testified that
 Officer Arnold testified that "he was told that (Capt. Hungerford and
 Lt. Pearson) wanted to search him" (TR 257-258) and, further, that he
 told him "to go ahead with the search, that there was no reason to get
 Mr. Presley up and have his come in" (TR 259).  Mr. Swick did not
 display a good memory or appear confident of the accuracy of his
 recollection.  See, e.g. TR 255.
    20.  I find that Officer Arnold did not know that he was going to be
 strip-searched until after he had told his supervisors not to wait for
 Officer Presley, and that his statement about going ahead with "it"
 referred to the questioning, not the strip search.  I base this upon the
 testimony of Officer Arnold, Lt. Pearson, and Mr. Howard, who appeared
 far surer of their testimony, on this point, than Capt. Hungerford or
 Mr. Swick.  See finding 19, supra.
    21.  At the time of the strip search in the Personnel Office, Ms.
 Parrott had been asked to leave and had locked the door to the Personnel
 Office.  Assistant Warden Tolfrey came into the Personnel Office during
 the search.  Lt. Pearson did the body search.  Lt. Ogden searched the
 possessions of Officer Arnold.  Capt. Hungerford, Mr. Howard, and Mr.
 Snyder were in attendance during the search.
    22.  Nothing incriminating was found during the search of Officer
 Arnold's body and possessions.  Officer Arnold did not know whether he
 was going to be questioned, after the search, and commented that
 "Presley should be here by now" (TR 29).  Capt. Hungerford replied:
 "you don't need one now" (TR 30) and told Officer Arnold that he was
 free to go.  During the time Officer Arnold was detained, no oral
 interrogation took place.
    23.  Mr. Howard testified that he would have stopped the process if
 any questions had been put to Officer Arnold, until a union
 representative arrived, but that union representation was not a
 "necessity" for a strip search (TR 177-178).
    24.  It would have been an act of insubordination for Officer Arnold
 to have declined to step into the Personnel Office, sign the form, and
 submit to the strip search.  Had Officer Arnold refused, Capt.
 Hungerford would have brought in the FBI to arrest him.
    25.  Officer Presley had represented another employee who was also
 strip-searched, sometime during the three-month period preceding August
 1981.  Officer Presley was present at the strip search.  After a
 discussion between Officer Presley and the employee, they agreed that it
 would be best if the employee resigned, which he did.  The strip search
 revealed nothing;  but Capt. Hungerford showed the employee some
 incriminating pictures of the employee receiving money from an inmate.
 The search was conducted in the belief that the employee was bringing
 marijuana into the prison.
                        Discussion and Conclusions
    A. Section 7116(a)(1) of the Statute makes it an unfair labor
 practice for an agency to "interfere with, restrain, or coerce" any
 employee in the exercise of that employee's right under the Statute.  5
 U.S.C. 7116(a)(1).  One of these protected rights is the employee's
 right to union representation at any investigatory examination conducted
 by agency management.  Specifically, Section 7114(a)(2)(B) of the
 Statute provides that:
          An exclusive representative of an appropriate unit shall be
       given the opportunity to be represented at . . . any examination
       of an employee in the unit by a representative of the agency in
       connection with an investigation if - (i) the employee reasonably
       believes that the examination may result in disciplinary action
       against the employee;  and (ii) the employee requests
    Analysis of this statutory provision reveals that four conditions
 precedent must be met before the vesting of a Section 7114(a)(2)(B)
 right.  First, the meeting between agency management and the bargaining
 unit employee must constitute an "examination." Second, the examination
 must be in connection with an investigation.  Third, the employee must
 reasonably believe that discipline could result from the meeting.  And,
 fourth, the employee must request representation.  The preponderance of
 evidence in the instant case supports a finding that all four of these
 conditions were met.  Thus, Respondent's proceeding with the
 examination, in the form of the strip search, without the union
 representative present, violated Section 7114(a)(2)(B) of the Statute.
    1.  Taking the conditions precedents seriatum, the strip search of
 Officer Arnold, even though unaccompanied by any oral interrogation,
 constituted an "examination" in connection with an investigation, within
 the meaning of Section 7114(a)(2)(B).
    The simplest dictionary definition of the word "examination"
 encompasses the strip search here involved.  See, e.g. page 459 of The
 Random House College Dictionary, which includes in its definition of
 "examination":  "1. the act of examining;  inspection;  inquiry;
 investigation." The act of strip searching Officer Arnold was an
 "inspection," pure and simple.
    Respondent would limit the dictionary definition of "examination" to
 only those acts of examination which encompass oral interrogation;  and
 it relies upon legislative history in support of its position.  See RBr
 5-15.  Much of the legislative history relied upon by Respondent is
 cited in Internal Revenue Service, Detroit, Michigan, 5 FLRA No. 53
 (1981, hereinafter, "IRS Detroit"), wherein the Authority affirmed the
 decision of Judge Devaney which, at pages 7-12, cites extensively from
 this history.
    The legislative history of how the term "examination" became a part
 of the Statute is obscure.  Statements emanating from the House of
 Representatives indicated that the right to union representation during
 investigations of employees for misconduct was based upon NLRB v.
 Weingarten, Inc., 420 U.S. 251 (1975, hereinafter Weingarten) a decision
 which upheld a decision of the National Labor Relations Board that an
 employer violated the right of an employee to union representation under
 Section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act, which protects the right
 of employees to "engage in . . . concerted activities for . . . mutual
 aid or protection." See pages 644 and 926 of the Legislative History of
 the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute, Title VII of the
 Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, Committee Print No. 96-97, Committee
 on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives 96th Cong.,
 1st Sess., November 19, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as "Legislative
 History").  At Legislative History 926 is set forth the remarks made by
 Representative Udall, on September 13, 1978 (124 Cong.Rec. H9624, daily
 ed.), in support of a substitute amendment.  See Legislative History
 907.  At Legislative History 644 is set forth the statement made in
 House Report No. 95-920, 95th Cong., 2d Sess., that H.R. 3793 "extends
 to Federal employees the same protection already available to employees
 in the private sector under the National Labor Relations Act," and cites
    In considering Weingarten's applicability to this case, several
 points must be recognized.  First, the National Labor Relations Act has
 no express provision for union representation during employer
 investigations for misconduct.  Secondly, Weingarten uses general
 language of broad impact.  The particular factual situation involved in
 Weingarten was that of an employee of a retail store being interrogated
 about taking money from a cash register, requesting union
 representation, and being denied such representation.  The Supreme Court
 concluded that the Board's interpretation of Section 7 was a
 "permissible" one (420 U.S.at 266-267) and one that "effectuate(d) the
 most fundamental purposes of the Act"-- "to eliminate the 'inequality of
 bargaining power between employees and employers.'" See 420 U.S.at
 261-262.  Although the Supreme Court was dealing with the particular
 facts in Weingarten, i.e., an investigatory interview, it speaks more
 generally of concern for:  "A single employee confronted by an employer
 investigating whether certain conduct deserves discipline . . . ." Id.
 at 262-263.
    Certainly, Officer Arnold was such an employee.  At the strip search,
 he was confronted by his first, second, and third line supervisors.  The
 search of his clothes, lunch bucket, and wallet was performed by his
 first-line supervisor, and not by some disinterested third party.  He
 was asked to sign a form indicating that evidence obtained from him
 might be used against him in a "criminal proceeding" and of his
 "incriminating" himself.  See finding 11, supra.  He had just been
 informed by his second-line supervisor that the supervisor had
 information that he had been trafficking with inmates, a "serious
 offense" as Respondent acknowledges (RBr 29).  If Officer Arnold had
 refused to cooperate, the FBI would have been called in to arrest him.
 A more "confront(ational)" situation could hardly be postulated.
    The Supreme Court spoke of an employee in a confrontation with his
 employee being "too fearful and inarticulate . . . or too ignorant" to
 deal with the situation (id. at 263) and the "assist(ance) which a
 "knowledgeable union representative" could render.  420 U.S.at 263.  In
 the instant case Officer Arnold was a "fearful" employee.  Shortly
 before the confrontation, he had found a suspect $20 bill hidden in his
 lunch bucket.  As it turned out, the $20 bill had been planted on him by
 an inmate, upon the instructions from Officer Arnold's second-line
 supervisor.  Though "talkative" throughout his ordeal in the Personnel
 Office, no evidence was adduced to show that he was able to speak with
 clarity and effectiveness about his situation.  Instead, he engaged in
 "laughing and joking" in what was admittedly a "stressful ordeal".  See
 finding 15, supra.  Also, he was not shown to be knowledgeable about his
 rights, under the union contract, one of which was "the right to being
 matters of personal concern to the attention of appropriate management
 officials" (Jt 1.4, Article 6b).
    Officer Presley fits perfectly the description of a "knowledgeable
 union representative." He was a union vice-president.  He could have
 advised Officer Arnold of his contractual rights which, presumably,
 would have included the right to have the Warden intervene in the
 actions of her subordinates, which were being taken against a long-time
 employee to whom she had recently given a Sustained Superior Performance
 Award.  Officer Presley could also have objected to so many persons
 being present for the strip search, the humiliation of which is
 graphically described at page 28 of the transcript.  He could have
 objected to any unnecessary roughness in the conduct of the body search,
 or careless handling of Officer Arnold's wallet and other personal
 possessions.  He could also have acted as a reassuring presence for
 Officer Arnold, and perhaps gotten Officer Arnold to relate the finding
 of a $20 bill in his lunchbox, and thus assisted Respondent in "getting
 to the bottom of the incident occasioning the (strip search)." See
 Weingarten, id at 263.  Officer Presley had recently represented another
 employee at a strip search and had persuaded that employee to resign,
 after discussing with the employee all of the facts.  Officer Presley
 would have been capable of assisting both the employee and the employer
 in a confrontational situation-- an investigatory interview in
 Weingarten and an investigatory strip search here.
    Thus, to the extent that the legislative history teaches that Section
 7114(a)(2)(B) extends a Weingarten-type of right to Federal employees,
 it lends no support to Respondent's arguments, for the strip search,
 basically, was a Weingarten-type of situation.
    Respondent also relies upon the fact that the language of the
 congressional reports and bills which preceded the bill ultimately
 explained in the conference report and adopted, spoke in terms of
 Weingarten-type of rights when "questioning" employees, "interrogation"
 of employees, employees "answer(ing)" questions, "investigatory
 interviews" and "discussion between an employee and an agency
 representative." See RBr 7-12.  The fact is, however, that the bill
 actually adopted uses a much broader term-- "any examination"-- and
 rejected a House bill using the narrower term "any investigatory
 interview." The only reliable explanation for this action is to be found
 in Conference Report No. 95-1717 of October 5, 1978, which states that:
          House sections 7114(a)(2) and (3) give a labor organization . .
       . the right to be present at the employee's request at any
       investigatory interview of an employee by an agency if the
       employee reasonably believes that the interview may result in
       disciplinary action against the employee.  In addition, the House
       bill requires the agency to inform the employee of his right of
       representation at any investigatory interview of an employee
       concerning "misconduct" which "could reasonably lead" to
       suspension, reduction in grade or pay, or removal.  The Senate
       bill contains no comparable provisions.
          The conferees agreed to adopt the wording in the House bill
       with an amendment deleting the House provision requiring the
       agency to inform employees before certain investigatory interviews
       of the right to representation, and substituting a requirement
       that each agency inform its employees annually of the right to
       representation.  The conferees further amended the provision so as
       to give the labor representative the right to be present at any
       examination of an employee by a representative of the agency in
       connection with an investigation if the employee reasonably
       believes that the examination may result in disciplinary action
       against the employee.  The conferees recognize that the right to
       representation in examinations may evolve differently in the
       private and Federal sectors, and specifically intend that future
       court decisions interpreting the right in the private sector will
       not necessarily be determinative for the Federal sector.
 See Legislative History 823-824.
    Representative Ford, active in drafting the Statute, did make a
 post-enactment statement to the effect that the conferees replaced the
 term "investigatory interview" with "examination" which was "a much
 broader term that will encompass more situations." See 124 Cong.Rec.
 H13608, daily ed. Oct. 14, 1978 and Legislative History 995 and see also
 183 and 211 et seq.  However, this statement, being a post-enactment
 one, is recognized by the Authority as being entitled to "little
 weight." See IRS Detroit, 5 FLRA No. 53, and page 12, footnote 8 of the
 decision affirmed by the Authority in that case.
    Thus, the plain language of the Statute encompasses a strip search,
 as an "examination;" and this definition is not restricted by its
 legislative history.  Also, holding that "any examination" enfolds into
 the right accorded by Section 7114(a)(2)(B) the strip search here
 conducted, accords with the concerns expressed by the United States
 Supreme Court in Weingarten, supra, which Respondent concedes was the
 inspiration for this section.  See RBr 14.
    The fact that the parties' contract speaks only of a right to union
 representation "during periods of questioning of employees in matters
 which may lead to disciplinary matters" (see RBr 14 and Jt 1.25), does
 not diminish rights accorded by the Statute.
    Case law cited by Respondent at pages 15-20 of its brief is
 distinguishable and, to the extent that it represents law which has
 evolved under the National Labor Relations Act, is not to be slavishly
 followed by this Authority.  See the Conference Report cited above, at
 page 14, which cautions that the "right to representation may evolve
 differently" in the private and Federal sectors and expresses the intent
 that private-sector law not be "necessarily determinative for the
 Federal sector."
    Respondent relies upon only one private-sector illustration-- an
 advice memorandum issued by the Associate General Counsel of the
 National Labor Relations Board in E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Co., Case
 No. 4-CA-9762, 100 LRRM 1633 (2/27/29), wherein he concluded that a
 Weingarten-type right did not attach to the "routine search" of an
 employee's car by a plant security guard.  The search was in accordance
 with plant procedures, that cars not be moved until the end of shifts.
 The employee involved was leaving the parking lot early.  Employees of
 the plant consent to the possibility of car searches when they accept
 employment and before they receive parking stickers.  The Associate
 General Counsel recognized that "both the search and the interview are
 means by which the Employer seeks information, and the mere fact that
 the Employer proceeds by way of visual inspection rather than by way of
 oral interrogation is not a critical difference under Weingarten" (100
 LRRM at 1633).  However, the Associate General Counsel concluded that
 "the imposition of the Weingarten requirement would constitute an
 impermissible interference with legitimate employer prerogatives," which
 the Weingarten decision expressly precludes.  Under Weingarten, the
 employer is free to deny the request for union representation, stop the
 means being used to obtain information, and carry on his inquiry by
 other means.  Id. at 258.  In the Du Pont matter, the "focus" of the
 investigation was on "whether there were goods in the car evidencing
 misconduct" (100 LRRM at 1634).
    Also here, the focus of the investigation was on whether the $20 bill
 was on Officer Arnold's person or in his belongings.  Thus, to have
 stopped the strip search could also be said to have interfered with
 Respondent's unchallenged right to conduct a strip search of a prison
 guard.  But here the union representative had already been called by
 management, and was expected to arrive shortly.  Any "infringement"
 would have been slight.  Thus, this Authority should not follow the path
 taken by the Associate General Counsel of the Board in the Du Pont
 matter, and instead, hold that the slight infringement upon management's
 prerogatives (to wait a few minutes for the union representative to
 arrive when no need for haste was shown) is justified in order to assure
 the employee of his rights under this Statute.
    At pages 18-19 of its brief, Respondent cites two decisions of this
 Authority for the proposition that the employer has the right to
 discontinue an examination and conduct its investigation through other
 sources-- Internal Revenue Service, Washington, D.C. and Internal
 Revenue Service, Hartford District Office, 4 FLRA No. 37 (1980, and
 hereinafter "IRS, Hartford), affirmed 671 F.2d 560 (C.A.D.C., 1980).
 United States Air Force 2750th Air Base Wing Headquarters, Air Force
 Logistics Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 9 FLRA No.
 117, 9 FLRA 871 (1982 and hereinafter "Wright-Patterson").  This right
 is not contested, in this case.  And the slight infringement upon
 management's prerogatives presented by the circumstances of this case,
 to conduct a strip search, does violence to neither of these decisions,
 which do not deal with this particular issue.  In IRS Hartford a
 violation was found of Section 7114(a)(2)(B);  but the focus was on how
 to determine whether an employee reasonably believed that discipline
 might result from an interview.  In Wright-Patterson, no violation was
 found of Section 7114(a)(2)(4), based upon credibility findings and the
 conclusion that several meetings were conducted for the sole purpose of
 informing the employee of a decision already reached, and for
 counselling the employee and were, therefore, not "examinations," in the
 statutory sense.  See 9 FLRA at 872.
    At pages 15 to 17 of its brief Respondent also discusses two cases
 wherein the General Counsel of the Authority declined to issue
 complaints.  In one, union representation was denied to an employee
 asked to submit to a fitness for duty physical examination because of
 excessive absences due to illness.  The employer would have allowed him
 to use his own private physician.  This case is Defense Mapping Agency,
 Case No. 3-CA-1858 and is to be found on page 27 of Report on
 Casehandling Developments in the Office of the General Counsel, April 1,
 1981 through June 30, 1981.  The other case is Marine Corps Logistics
 Base, Barstow, California, Case Nos. 8-CA-1005, 1008, 1079, to be found
 on page 18 of Report of Casehandling Developments of the Office of the
 General Counsel, July 1, 1981 through September 30, 1981.  In this case
 the General Counsel determined that a random search of vehicles by
 military police, at the gates of the activity while vehicles were
 entering and exiting, was not an "examination" within the statutory
 meaning.  Obviously, the General Counsel has determined otherwise, as to
 the situation here involved.  This was not a "random" strip search, but
 one targeted on Officer Arnold according to a prearranged plan.  And
 being the object of a strip search conducted in front of one's first,
 second, and third-line supervisors, and several other agents of
 management, and conducted to find information that could lead to one's
 dismissal and indictment, hardly compares to a physical examination
 conducted by one's own physician, presumably in the privacy of his
 office, that was to be done merely to determine fitness for duty.
    This Authority's decision in Federal Aviation Administration, St.
 Louis Tower, Bridgeton, Missouri, 6 FLRA No. 116, 6 FLRA 678 (1981), is
 of particular pertinence.  In that case, the Authority affirmed the
 decision of Judge Burton S. Sternburg that, regardless of how a
 "meeting" is "titled" (a "counselling" session there, and a "strip
 search" here) "whenever the circumstances underlying a meeting make it
 reasonable to envision a discussion of an employee's conduct which could
 lead to discipline, the employee is entitled under Section 7114(a)(2)(B)
 of the Statute to union representation." See 6 FLRA at 686.  This is an
 easily applied yardstick by which the agency can measure its statutory
 responsibility, and the employee can secure his or her statutory right.
 Here, agency management, before the strip search began, informed the
 employee that it had information that he "was trafficking with inmates,"
 and that he was "about to be questioned" (findings 10 and 11, supra).
 To borrow the words of Judge Sternburg, as affirmed by this Authority,
 "it was reasonable to conclude under all the circumstances present
 herein that there would be a discussion of the reasons" for Officer
 Arnold's confrontation in the Personnel Office by his first, second, and
 third-line supervisors.  See 6 FLRA at 686.  As argued by the General
 Counsel, "even though the physical search of Arnold did not entail oral
 interrogation, it nonetheless constituted the core of an examination
 whose initial phase was commenced by Hungerford at 8:05 a.m., triggering
 Arnold's right to a Union representative at the examination's inception"
 (GBr 19).
    2.  With regard to the second condition precedent, the record
 evidence leaves no doubt that the strip search was an examination "in
 connection with an investigation." The announced purpose of the search
 was to ascertain whether Officer Arnold was guilty of trafficking with
 inmates.  And agency management masterminded the scheme to plant and
 then to find, by means of the search, the $20 bill on Officer Arnold, or
 among his possessions.
    3.  With respect to the third condition precedent, the record also
 establishes that Officer Arnold "reasonably believe(d) that the
 examination m(ight have) result(ed) in disciplinary action against
 (him)." The test for establishing whether or not such a reasonable
 belief exists is an objective one which analyzes the totality of the
 circumstances, and not the employee's subjective state of mind.  See IRS
 Hartford, supra, 4 FLRA No. 37, at page 11 of Judge Arrigo's decision,
 which was affirmed.
    Here, management had arranged for a marked $20 bill to be passed to
 Officer Arnold by an inmate with whom management admits it had reason to
 believe that Officer Arnold was trafficking in contraband.  This is a
 "serious offense," as Respondent concedes, at page 29 of its brief.  The
 FBI would have been called in, had Officer Arnold not been compliant
 about the investigation.  The inmate hid the bill in Officer Arnold's
 lunch bucket, on August 10.  The bill was found by Officer Arnold at
 5:00 a.m., and was thereupon flushed down the toilet.  When Officer
 Arnold went off duty, at 8:00 a.m., he was met by his second-line
 supervisor and another management agent and told to step into the
 Personnel Office.  There, it was disclosed to him, by his second-line
 supervisor, that there was information that he was trafficking with
 inmates.  Then, he was read his "rights," beginning with a statement:
 "You are about to be questioned as part of an investigation being
 conducted into allegations that you have been involved in misconduct . .
 . (that) might cover criminal misconduct as well as violations of fps
 regulations. . .." see finding 11, supra.  Thus, when Officer Arnold was
 then asked if he wanted union representation, it was all too clear to
 him, an employee involved for 13 years in prison administration, that
 the examination about to begin might result in disciplinary action
 against him.
    Respondent argues that Officer Arnold could not have reasonably
 believed that the examination might result in disciplinary action
 because he himself testified that he had "nothing to hide," appeared to
 others to be "jovial" and "very cooperative" and not "distraught,"
 engaged in "casual" and "lighthearted conversation," while waiting for
 the union representative, did not appear to be taking the matter
 seriously, and knew he had destroyed the $20 bill.  See RBr 31-32.  I
 have already found that Officer Arnold's joviality, etc. was a bluff,
 and that, in fact, he had reason to fear that something else may have
 been planted on him, and was distraught, upset, tired, nervous, and
 worried about his future career.  See finding 16, supra.  Even
 Respondent concedes that the evidence established that his hands were
 "trembling." See RBr 31.
    4.  Finally, the evidence is clear that Officer Arnold requested
 union representation, and thus met the fourth condition precedent for
 the vesting of the right to union representation.  Once such a request
 is made, it need not be repeated.  See page 12 of Judge Scalzo's
 decision which was affirmed by the Authority in Lackland Air Force Base
 Exchange, Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, 5 FLRA No. 60 (1981,
 hereinafter "Lackland").
    B.  Officer Arnold did not, as Respondent argues, "effectively and
 voluntarily surrender(ed) his 7114(a)(2)(B) right to representation."
 See RBr 20.
    In the first place, Officer Arnold did not waive any statutory right
 to union representation by signing the "rights" form cited fully in
 finding 11, supra.  Nor does Respondent appear to so argue.  See RBr 23.
    Secondly, a waiver of a statutory right must be "clear and
 unmistakable." See e.g., Department of the Treasury, United States
 Customs Service, Region 1, Boston, Massachusetts, and St. Albans,
 Vermont District Office, 10 FLRA No. 100, 10 FLRA 566, at 567 (1982).
    While I have found that Officer Arnold told his assembled supervisors
 not to bother Officer Presley, when he learned he had already gone to
 bed (finding 17, supra), there is no credible evidence that he told them
 to stop looking for someone else to represent him.  While I have found
 that Officer Arnold, upon learning that Officer Presley was on his way,
 then told his supervisors to go ahead with "it" (finding 17, supra), I
 have also found that Officer Arnold did not realize that "it" was to be
 a strip search, and not the "questioning" he had been told was to occur.
  See finding 20, supra.  At the time he made the statement to go ahead
 with "it," Officer Arnold knew that Officer Presley was already on his
 way to the prison to represent him, and that he lived only a short
 distance away.  Thus, he was willing for the questioning to start.  It
 is quite another thing to assume that he was clearly and unmistakably
 willing to submit to the indignity and possibly incriminating ordeal of
 a strip search, without the benefit of the union representation he had
    Thus, it must be concluded that Officer Arnold did not clearly and
 unmistakably waive his right to union representation during the strip
 search, and that Respondent committed an unfair labor practice in
 conducting it before the union representative arrived on the scene.
    The parties raise a number of other issues, the resolution of which
 would serve only to lengthen, without altering, this decision.
 Accordingly, judicial restraint is exercised.
                  Ultimate Findings and Recommended Order
    It is found that Respondent has engaged in unfair labor practices, as
 alleged in the complaint, and thereby violated 5 U.S.C. 7116(a)(1) and
    Accordingly, and pursuant to 5 CFR 2423.29 and 5 U.S.C. 7118, the
 Authority hereby orders that Respondent shall:
    1.  Cease and desist from:
          (a) Conducting a strip search of any bargaining unit employees,
       in connection with an investigation, if the employee reasonably
       believes that the strip search may result in disciplinary action
       against the employee, and requests union representation, until
       such time as a union representative is present to represent the
          (b) In any like or related manner, interfering with,
       restraining, or coercing its employees in the exercise of their
       rights assured by the Statute.
    2.  Take the following affirmative action in order to effectuate the
 purposes and policies of the Statute:
          (a) Give the American Federation of Government Employees, Local
       3696, Council of Prison Locals, the opportunity to be present at
       any examination of an employee in the unit by a representative of
       the Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Correctional
       Institution, Butner, North Carolina, in connection with an
       investigation, including a strip search, when the employee
       reasonably believes that the examination may result in
       disciplinary action against the employee, and the employee
       requests representation.
          (b) Post, at its facilities at Butner, North Carolina, copies
       of the Notice to All Employees, attached hereto as Appendix A, on
       forms to be furnished by the Regional Director, Region IV, Federal
       Labor Relations Authority.  Upon receipt of such forms they shall
       be signed by the Warden, and shall be posted and maintained by her
       for sixty (60) consecutive days thereafter, in conspicuous places,
       including all bulletin boards and other places where notices to
       employees are customarily posted.  The Warden shall take all
       reasonable steps to insure that such Notices are not altered,
       defaced, or covered by any other material.
          (c) Pursuant to Section 2423.30 of the Authority's Rules and
       Regulations, notify the Regional Director, Region IV, Federal
       Labor Relations Authority, in writing within 30 days from the date
       of this Order, as to what steps have been taken to comply
                                       ISABELLE R. CAPPELLO
                                       Administrative Law Judge
 Dated:  June 22, 1983
          Washington, D.C.
                                APPENDIX A
                          NOTICE TO ALL EMPLOYEES
 STATUTE We Hereby Notify Our Employees That:
    WE WILL give the American Federation of Government Employees, Local
 3696, Council of Prison Locals, the opportunity to be present at any
 examination of an employee in the unit by a representative of the
 Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Correctional
 Institution, Butner, North Carolina, in connection with an