United States, Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons, Federal Correctional Complex, Beaumont, Texas (Agency) and American Federation of Government Employees, Council of Prisons Local C-33 (Union)
[ v59 p466 ]
59 FLRA No. 75
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS
FEDERAL CORRECTIONAL COMPLEX
OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES
COUNCIL OF PRISONS LOCAL C-33
December 8, 2003
Before the Authority: Dale Cabaniss, Chairman, and
Carol Waller Pope and Tony Armendariz, Members [n1]
I. Statement of the Case
This matter is before the Authority on exceptions to an award of Arbitrator Russell C. Neas filed by the Agency under § 7122(a) of the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute (the Statute) and part 2425 of the Authority's Regulations. The Union filed an opposition to the Agency's exceptions. [n2]
The Arbitrator found that the Agency violated the parties' agreement by placing the grievant on home duty without just cause. He sustained the grievance and ordered backpay for lost overtime, shift differential, and Sunday work, and a promotion with backpay.
For the reasons that follow, we find that portions of the award are contrary to law and we set aside those portions.
II. Background and Arbitrator's Award
Upon completion of an investigation by the Agency involving alleged misconduct of the grievant, a correctional officer, the Agency placed the grievant on home duty for security reasons and because of a different, ongoing investigation conducted by the Office of Inspector General (OIG). The Union filed a grievance alleging that the Agency took this action without just cause and failed to give the grievant fair and equitable treatment regarding promotional, overtime, shift differential, and Sunday work opportunities. The grievance was unresolved and submitted to arbitration where the Arbitrator framed the issues as whether the Agency had just cause for placing the grievant on home duty and whether the Agency violated the parties' agreement by giving the grievant unfair and inequitable treatment. [n3]
Relying on his findings of numerous improper actions taken by the Agency during its investigation of the grievant's alleged misconduct, the Arbitrator concluded that there was no just cause for placing the grievant on home duty and that this action violated Article 6, Section b-2 of the parties' agreement because the grievant was not treated fairly and equitably. [n4] According to the Arbitrator, the grievant was "damaged by the actions of the Agency" with regard to loss of pay for overtime, shift differential, and Sunday work, which were not available to the grievant during the period he was on home duty even though he was "interested" in such benefits. Award at 72, 56. The Arbitrator also found that the grievant was "denied a promotion for which he was well qualified, because he was under investigation." Id. Accordingly, the Arbitrator sustained the grievance and issued, as relevant here, the following award: (1) backpay for lost overtime, shift differential, and Sunday work, computed on the basis of the average amount paid to correctional officers during the time period the grievant was on home duty; and (2) a promotion, with backpay retroactive to the date of the grievance. [n5] [ v59 p467 ]
III. Agency's Exceptions
The Agency contends that the award of a promotion with backpay is contrary to the Back Pay Act because the Arbitrator failed to find a direct causal connection between the violation of the agreement and the grievant's failure to be promoted. In this regard, the Agency asserts that the Arbitrator did not find that the grievant would have been selected for a promotion "but for" the fact that the Agency improperly placed the grievant on home duty and failed to consider him. Exceptions at 4.
The Agency also contends that the Arbitrator's award of backpay for overtime, shift differential, and Sunday work is contrary to the Back Pay Act. In this regard, the Agency claims that the process for obtaining certain shifts is "not an automatic one" and it would be "speculative to assert that a[n] employee would be guaranteed a certain amount of overtime, Sunday pay, or other differentials . . ." Id. at 5. The Agency argues that the Arbitrator's determination that the grievant was "`interested'" in the benefits at issue does not establish the causal findings necessary to satisfy the requirements of the Back Pay Act. Id. (quoting Award at 56).
IV. Analysis and Conclusions
The Agency contends that the award of a promotion with backpay, and backpay with respect to overtime, shift differential, and Sunday work is contrary to the Back Pay Act, 5 U.S.C. § 5596. The Authority reviews questions of law de novo. See NTEU, Chapter 24, 50 FLRA 330, 332 (1995) (citing United States Customs Serv. v. FLRA , 43 F.3d 682, 686-87 (D.C. Cir. 1994)). In applying a standard of de novo review, the Authority determines whether the arbitrator's legal conclusions are consistent with the applicable standard of law. See NFFE, Local 1437, 53 FLRA 1703, 1710 (1998). In making that determination, the Authority defers to the arbitrator's underlying factual findings. See id.
Under the Back Pay Act, 5 U.S.C. § 5596(b)(1), an award of backpay is authorized only when an arbitrator finds that: (1) the aggrieved employee was affected by an unjustified and unwarranted personnel action; and (2) the personnel action resulted in the withdrawal or reduction of the employee's pay, allowances, or differentials. See SSA, Office of Hearings and Appeals, Falls Church, Va., 55 FLRA 349, 353 (1999).
With regard to the first requirement, the Authority has held that a violation of a collective bargaining agreement constitutes an unjustified or unwarranted personnel action within the meaning of the Back Pay Act. See United States Dep't of Defense, Dep't of Defense Dependents Schools, 54 FLRA 773, 785 (1998). The Arbitrator found, and the Agency does not dispute, that the Agency violated Article 6, Section b-2 of the parties' agreement. The Agency contends that the second requirement has not been met with regard to either the award of a promotion with backpay or the award of backpay with respect to overtime, shift differential and Sunday work. We address the two portions of the award separately.
With regard to the promotion portion of the award, the Arbitrator found that the grievant was "denied a promotion for which he was well qualified, because he was under investigation." Award at 72. The Arbitrator made no other findings supporting the award. In particular, the Arbitrator made no finding that the grievant applied for, or would have been selected for, a specific promotion if the Agency had not violated Article 6, Section b-2 of the parties' agreement by placing the grievant on home duty. In fact, the only discussion of the promotion issue in the award, other than the above statement, is the Arbitrator's statement that the Union made the following argument:
The Agency denied [the grievant] promotional opportunities while he was on home duty because he was under investigation, thereby denying him due process.
Award at 37.
Consistent with the foregoing, nothing in the Arbitrator's award or the record supports finding that there is a causal connection between the violation of Article 6, Section b-2 and the award of a promotion with backpay. Accordingly, we find that the promotion portion of the award is deficient as contrary to the Back Pay Act. See SSA, Office of Hearings and Appeals, Paducah, Ky., 58 FLRA 124, 125-26 (2002) (award that did not reflect any connection between the failure to follow promotion procedures and the failure of the grievant to be selected for promotion found deficient); SSA, Offi