U.S. Federal Labor Relations Authority

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The Statute: § 7103. Definitions; application

       (a)     For the purpose of this chapter--

      (1)     "person" means an individual, labor organization, or agency;
      (2)     "employee" means an individual--
      (A)     employed in an agency; or
      (B)     whose employment in an agency has ceased because of any unfair labor practice under section 7116 of this title and who has not obtained any other regular and substantially equivalent employment, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Federal Labor Relations Authority;

but does not include--

      (i)     an alien or noncitizen of the United States who occupies a position outside the United States;
      (ii)     a member of the uniformed services;
      (iii)     a supervisor or a management official;
      (iv)     an officer or employee in the Foreign Service of the United States employed in the Department of State, the International Communication Agency, the Agency for International Development, the Department of Agriculture, or the Department of Commerce; or
      (v)     any person who participates in a strike in violation of section 7311 of this title;
      (3)     "agency" means an Executive agency (including a nonappropriated fund instrumentality described in section 2105(c) of this title and the Veterans' Canteen Service, Department of Veterans Affairs), the Library of Congress, the Government Printing Office, and the Smithsonian Institution, but does not include--
      (A)     the General Accounting Office;
      (B)     the Federal Bureau of Investigation;
      (C)     the Central Intelligence Agency;
      (D)     the National Security Agency;
      (E)     the Tennessee Valley Authority;
      (F)     the Federal Labor Relations Authority;
      (G)     the Federal Service Impasses Panel; or
      (H)     the United States Secret Service and the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division.
      (4)     "labor organization" means an organization composed in whole or in part of employees, in which employees participate and pay dues, and which has as a purpose the dealing with an agency concerning grievances and conditions of employment, but does not include--
      (A)     an organization which, by its constitution, bylaws, tacit agreement among its members, or otherwise, denies membership because of race, color, creed, national origin, sex, age, preferential or nonpreferential civil service status, political affiliation, marital status, or handicapping condition;
      (B)     an organization which advocates the overthrow of the constitutional form of government of the United States;
      (C)     an organization sponsored by an agency; or
      (D)     an organization which participates in the conduct of a strike against the Government or any agency thereof or imposes a duty or obligation to conduct, assist, or participate in such a strike;
      (5)     "dues" means dues, fees, and assessments;
      (6)     "Authority" means the Federal Labor Relations Authority described in section 7104(a) of this title;
      (7)     "Panel" means the Federal Service Impasses Panel described in section 7119(c) of this title;
      (8)     "collective bargaining agreement" means an agreement entered into as a result of collective bargaining pursuant to the provisions of this chapter;
      (9)     "grievance" means any complaint--
      (A)     by any employee concerning any matter relating to the employment of the employee;
      (B)     by any labor organization concerning any matter relating to the employment of any employee; or
      (C)     by any employee, labor organization, or agency concerning--
      (i)     the effect or interpretation, or a claim of breach, of a collective bargaining agreement; or
      (ii)     any claimed violation, misinterpretation, or misapplication of any law, rule, or regulation affecting conditions of employment;
      (10)     "supervisor" means an individual employed by an agency having authority in the interest of the agency to hire, direct, assign, promote, reward, transfer, furlough, layoff, recall, suspend, discipline, or remove employees, to adjust their grievances, or to effectively recommend such action, if the exercise of the authority is not merely routine or clerical in nature but requires the consistent exercise of independent judgment, except that, with respect to any unit which includes firefighters or nurses, the term "supervisor" includes only those individuals who devote a preponderance of their employment time to exercising such authority;
      (11)     "management official" means an individual employed by an agency in a position the duties and responsibilities of which require or authorize the individual to formulate, determine, or influence the policies of the agency;
      (12)     "collective bargaining" means the performance of the mutual obligation of the representative of an agency and the exclusive representative of employees in an appropriate unit in the agency to meet at reasonable times and to consult and bargain in a good-faith effort to reach agreement with respect to the conditions of employment affecting such employees and to execute, if requested by either party, a written document incorporating any collective bargaining agreement reached, but the obligation referred to in this paragraph does not compel either party to agree to a proposal or to make a concession;
      (13)     "confidential employee" means an employee who acts in a confidential capacity with respect to an individual who formulates or effectuates management policies in the field of labor-management relations;
      (14)     "conditions of employment" means personnel policies, practices, and matters, whether established by rule, regulation, or otherwise, affecting working conditions, except that such term does not include policies, practices, and matters--
      (A)     relating to political activities prohibited under subchapter III of chapter 73 of this title;
      (B)     relating to the classification of any position; or
      (C)     to the extent such matters are specifically provided for by Federal statute;
      (15)     "professional employee" means--
      (A)     an employee engaged in the performance of work--
      (i)     requiring knowledge of an advanced type in a field of science or learning customarily acquired by a prolonged course of specialized intellectual instruction and study in an institution of higher learning or a hospital (as distinguished from knowledge acquired by a general academic education, or from an apprenticeship, or from training in the performance of routine mental, manual, mechanical, or physical activities);
      (ii)     requiring the consistent exercise of discretion and judgment in its performance;
      (iii)     which is predominantly intellectual and varied in character (as distinguished from routine mental, manual, mechanical, or physical work); and
      (iv)     which is of such character that the output produced or the result accomplished by such work cannot be standardized in relation to a given period of time; or
      (B)     an employee who has completed the courses of specialized intellectual instruction and study described in subparagraph (A)(i) of this paragraph and is performing related work under appropriate direction or guidance to qualify the employee as a professional employee described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;
      (16)     "exclusive representative" means any labor organization which--
      (A)     is certified as the exclusive representative of employees in an appropriate unit pursuant to section 7111 of this title; or
      (B)     was recognized by an agency immediately before the effective date of this chapter as the exclusive representative of employees in an appropriate unit--
      (i)     on the basis of an election; or
      (ii)     on any basis other than an election,

and continues to be so recognized in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

      (17)     "firefighter" means any employee engaged in the performance of work directly connected with the control and extinguishment of fires or the maintenance and use firefighting apparatus and equipment; and
      (18)     "United States" means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States.

      (b)(1)     The President may issue an order excluding any agency or subdivision thereof from coverage under this chapter if the President determines that--

      (A)     the agency or subdivision has as a primary function intelligence, counterintelligence, investigative, or national security work, and
      (B)     the provisions of this chapter cannot be applied to that agency or subdivision in a manner consistent with national security requirements and considerations.

      (2)     The President may issue an order suspending any provision of this chapter with respect to any agency, installation, or activity located outside the 50 States and the District of Columbia, if the President determines that the suspension is necessary in the interest of national security.